With the incredible technology already at our disposal and the visions of technology to come, many people are seriously considering the possibility of immortality distinct from the religious concept of afterlife.
While the quest for immortality has been a part of humanity for most of its known history, the difference today is that immortalists are using science, reason and practical strategies to approach the problem, rather than faith and hope.
To that end, many transhumanists and like-minded people apply life extension practices such as caloric restriction to extend their healthy years. Their goal is to live until predicted technology able to radically extend lifespan, such as nanotechnology, becomes a reality. As a precaution, many have backup plans such as cryonic suspension. More here.