Root Cause of Epilepsy Found

If only we all had glowing brains like this dude, we’d know what’s happening in there

Researchers in the United States said that they had found the key to a decades-old riddle over epileptic fits, helping to advance the quest for new treatments for this disabling condition.

Experiments in the last century found that by breathing carbon dioxide (CO²), an epileptic patient boosted acid levels in the brain and could terminate a fit, although the molecular switch for achieving this was veiled in mystery.

In experiments on mice, scientists from the University of Iowa and the Veterans Affairs Iowa City Health Care System, reporting in a specialist journal, believe they have found the switch.

A channel known as ASIC1a, located on the surface of brain cells, opens up in response to higher acid levels and admits charged atoms known as ions. This in turn activates other brain cells that block the seizures, the investigators believe. ASIC1a’s linchpin role was uncovered thanks to experiments using genetically modified mice.

The researchers used kainite, a chemical known to trigger convulsions, on rodents that either had ASIC1a or had been modified to lack the ion channel. The ASIC1a-deprived mice had seizures that were severer and lasted longer. “We found that ASIC1a does not seem to play a role in how a seizure starts, but as the seizure continues and the pH is reduced, ASIC1a plays a role in stopping additional seizure activity,” said investigator Adam Ziemann.

PH is a measure of acidity. The lower the pH index, the higher the acidity level.

Among mice with ASIc1a, breathing CO² caused brain pH to drop rapidly and protect mice from lethal fits.

“In seizures, ASIC1a appears to be activating inhibitory neurons,” said co-author John Wemmie, quoted in a University of Iowa press release.
Via the Times