Scientists Identify Antivirus System in Host Cells

Scientists have discovered a new anti-virus system

Viruses have led scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis to the discovery of a security system in host cells. Viruses that cause disease in animals beat the security system millennia ago.

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Bees Reveal Nature-Nurture Secrets

“It’s crazy how realistic they look when there under a microscope!”

The nature-nurture debate is a “giant step” closer to being resolved after scientists studying bees documented how environmental inputs can modify our genetic hardware. The researchers uncovered extensive molecular differences in the brains of worker bees and queen bees which develop along very different paths when put on different diets.

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Biological Basis of ‘Bacterial Immune System’ Discovered

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Bacteria and archaea (first discovered in extreme environments such as deep-sea volcanic vents, such as the one shown above) manage to survive thanks in part to a built-in defense system that helps protect them from many viruses and other invaders.

Bacteria don’t have easy lives. In addition to mammalian immune systems that besiege the bugs, they have natural enemies called bacteriophages, viruses that kill half the bacteria on Earth every two days.

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Ancient Penguin DNA Raises Doubts About Accuracy of Genetic Dating Techniques

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Adelie penguins have survived in Antarctica for thousands of years and are invaluable for genetic research.

Penguins that died 44,000 years ago in Antarctica have provided extraordinary frozen DNA samples that challenge the accuracy of traditional genetic aging measurements, and suggest those approaches have been routinely underestimating the age of many specimens by 200 to 600 percent.

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Venomous Shrew And Lizard: Harmless Digestive Enzyme Evolved Twice Into Dangerous Toxin In Two Unrelated Species

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A harmless digestive enzyme can be turned into a toxin in two unrelated species — a shrew (pictured) and a lizard — thereby giving each a venomous bite.

Biologists have shown that independent but similar molecular changes turned a harmless digestive enzyme into a toxin in two unrelated species — a shrew and a lizard — giving each a venomous bite.

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Why A Low-Calorie Diet Extends Lifespans: Critical Enzyme Pair Identified

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The enzyme WWP-1, shown in green, is a key player in the signaling cascade that links dietary restriction to longevity in roundworms.

Experiment after experiment confirms that a diet on the brink of starvation expands lifespan in mice and many other species. But the molecular mechanism that links nutrition and survival is still poorly understood. Now, researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have identified a pivotal role for two enzymes that work together to determine the health benefits of diet restriction.

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Fundamental Mechanism For Cell Organization Discovered

 

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“Looks like a space egg…. anyone…. alrighty nevermind”

Scientists have discovered that cells use a very simple phase transition — similar to water vapor condensing into dew — to assemble and localize subcellular structures that are involved in formation of the embryo.

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