How Stem Cells Make Skin

090913134028-large

In normal skin (left), the stem cells at the base, shown in green, differentiate into skin cells, shown in red.

Stem cells have a unique ability: when they divide, they can either give rise to more stem cells, or to a variety of specialised cell types. In both mice and humans, a layer of cells at the base of the skin contains stem cells that can develop into the specialised cells in the layers above. Scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Monterotondo, in collaboration with colleagues at the Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid, have discovered two proteins that control when and how these stem cells switch to being skin cells. Continue reading… “How Stem Cells Make Skin”

0

Injectable Biomaterial Regenerates Brain Tissue in Traumatic Injuries

090902195244-large

This is a mosaic image reconstruction of the lesion. A well-structured vasculature network was rebuilt at the lesion filled with the hydrogel.

An injectable biomaterial gel may help brain tissue grow at the site of a traumatic brain injury, according to findings by a Clemson University bioengineer.

Continue reading… “Injectable Biomaterial Regenerates Brain Tissue in Traumatic Injuries”

0

Tumors Feel The Deadly Sting Of Nanobees

dark_honey_bee_hemberger

Researchers have recently harnessed the toxin in bee venom to kill tumor cells.

When bees sting, they pump poison into their victims. Now the toxin in bee venom has been harnessed to kill tumor cells by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The researchers attached the major component of bee venom to nano-sized spheres that they call nanobees.

Continue reading… “Tumors Feel The Deadly Sting Of Nanobees”

0

Blast Waves May Cause Human Brain Injury Even Without Direct Head Impacts

57708_united_states_army_soldier_09

The Army’s Advanced Combat Helmet replaced the older Personal Armor System for Ground Troops helmet.

New research on the effects of blast waves could lead to an enhanced understanding of head injuries and improved military helmet design.

Continue reading… “Blast Waves May Cause Human Brain Injury Even Without Direct Head Impacts”

0

Retina Cells Created From Skin-derived Stem Cells

090824151258

early retinal cells (green) and early brain cells (blue).

A team of scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health has successfully grown multiple types of retina cells from two types of stem cells — suggesting a future in which damaged retinas could be repaired by cells grown from the patient’s own skin.

Continue reading… “Retina Cells Created From Skin-derived Stem Cells”

0

Students Embed Stem Cells In Sutures To Enhance Healing

090720191145-large

Surgical thread can be embedded with a patient’s own adult stem cells to promote healing.

Johns Hopkins biomedical engineering students have demonstrated a practical way to embed a patient’s own adult stem cells in the surgical thread that doctors use to repair serious orthopedic injuries such as ruptured tendons. The goal, the students said, is to enhance healing and reduce the likelihood of re-injury without changing the surgical procedure itself. Continue reading… “Students Embed Stem Cells In Sutures To Enhance Healing”

0

Newborn Brain Cells Improve Our Ability To Navigate Our Environment

090709140808-large

This image depicts a Paired Associates Learning (PAL) task, in which mice have to choose a specific object in its correct location on a touch screen to obtain a reward.

Although the fact that we generate new brain cells throughout life is no longer disputed, their purpose has been the topic of much debate. Now, an international collaboration of researchers made a big leap forward in understanding what all these newborn neurons might actually do. Their study, published in the July 10, 2009, issue of the journal Science, illustrates how these young cells improve our ability to navigate our environment. Continue reading… “Newborn Brain Cells Improve Our Ability To Navigate Our Environment”

0

Paralyzed People Using Computers, Amputees Controlling Bionic Limbs, With Microelectrodes On (Not In) Brain

090629081137-large

Microwires emerging from the green and orange tubes connect to two arrays of 16 microelectrodes. Each array is embedded in a small mat of clear, rubbery silicone

Experimental devices that read brain signals have helped paralyzed people use computers and may let amputees control bionic limbs. But existing devices use tiny electrodes that poke into the brain. Now, a University of Utah study shows that brain signals controlling arm movements can be detected accurately using new microelectrodes that sit on the brain but don’t penetrate it.

Continue reading… “Paralyzed People Using Computers, Amputees Controlling Bionic Limbs, With Microelectrodes On (Not In) Brain”

0

Site For Alcohol’s Action In The Brain Discovered

bud-light-alcohol-drink1.jpg

New research sheds light on how alcohol alters the way brain cells work.

Alcohol’s inebriating effects are familiar to everyone. But the molecular details of alcohol’s impact on brain activity remain a mystery. A new study by researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies brings us closer to understanding how alcohol alters the way brain cells work.

Continue reading… “Site For Alcohol’s Action In The Brain Discovered”

0

Like Burrs On Your Clothes, Molecule-size Capsules Can Deliver Drugs By Sticking To Targeted Cells

 090625152927.jpg

This image shows that after 36 hours nearly every target cell (round gray spheres) has ingested a nanocapsule containing a small-interfering RNA (in red).

It is now possible to engineer tiny containers the size of a virus to deliver drugs and other materials with almost 100 percent efficiency to targeted cells in the bloodstream.

Continue reading… “Like Burrs On Your Clothes, Molecule-size Capsules Can Deliver Drugs By Sticking To Targeted Cells”

0

Stem Cells Created From Pigs’ Connective Tissue Cells

090625141508-large.jpg

 

Scientists have developed the ability to take regular cells from a pig’s connective tissues, known as fibroblasts, and transform them into stem cells.

For years, proponents have touted the benefits of embryonic stem cell research, but the potential therapies still face hurdles. Side effects such as tumor development, a lack of an effective and long-term animal model to test new therapies, and genetic incompatibility between the host and donor cells are some of the problems faced by researchers.

Continue reading… “Stem Cells Created From Pigs’ Connective Tissue Cells”

0

‘Chemical Nose’ May Sniff Out Cancer Earlier

 090623164539-large.jpg

Nanoparticles and polymers were used to create a sensor that can distinguish between healthy, cancerous and metastatic cells.

Using a “chemical nose” array of nanoparticles and polymers, researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have developed a fundamentally new, more effective way to differentiate not only between healthy and cancerous cells but also between metastatic and non-metastatic cancer cells. It’s a tool that could revolutionize cancer detection and treatment, according to chemist Vincent Rotello and cancer specialist Joseph Jerry.

Continue reading… “‘Chemical Nose’ May Sniff Out Cancer Earlier”

0