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How air attacks were detected before  radar.

Beginning in the middle of the 1930s, engineering labs in the U.S. and Europe were experimenting with radar systems. Early radars did not have the slick plan position indicator (PPI) displays that modern systems use for plotting target movement for indication of azimuth (direction) and range (distance). Instead, oscilloscopes showed radar returns as amplitude blips along a time base that represented range. Azimuth was determined by where the operator pointed the antenna (rotating versions came later). Since radar cross section stealth technology had not been invented yet, the amplitude of the signal was useful a measure of the size of the target. (Pics)

Prior to the invention of radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging), other means were needed to detect approaching aircraft during times of war. Human spotters were often posted in open fields, tall building rooftops, shorelines, and hills in order to provide a measure of warning against approaching enemy aircraft (acoustic defense). Effectiveness was dependent on many parameters like quality of eyesight, hearing and alertness of the observers, atmosphere transparency (visibility), light level, aircraft size, configuration, color and noise level, etc. Even under ideal conditions detected aircraft would be no more than a few minutes away from the observer, so that did not leave a lot of time to prepare a response. Observer networks were set up as far in advance of key targets as possible through a radio relay network, but it left a lot to be desired.

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Via RF Cafe

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