Old human cells rejuvenated with stem cell technology, research finds

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Old human cells return to a more youthful and vigorous state after being induced to briefly express a panel of proteins involved in embryonic development, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

The researchers also found that elderly mice regained youthful strength after their existing muscle stem cells were subjected to the rejuvenating protein treatment and transplanted back into their bodies.

The proteins, known as Yamanaka factors, are commonly used to transform an adult cell into what are known as induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells can become nearly any type of cell in the body, regardless of the cell from which they originated. They’ve become important in regenerative medicine and drug discovery.

The study found that inducing old human cells in a lab dish to briefly express these proteins rewinds many of the molecular hallmarks of aging and renders the treated cells nearly indistinguishable from their younger counterparts.

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Study finds aging tends to shift gears as you turn 34, 60 and 78

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It’s possible to predict a person’s age from protein levels in their blood according to a Stanford study

 The blood-borne signs of aging – and indeed, perhaps the causes of aging – make three big shifts around the ages of 34, 60 and 78, a new Stanford-led study has discovered, potentially leading to new diagnostic tests and avenues of anti-aging research.

The study measured levels of nearly 3,000 individual proteins in the plasma of small blood samples from 4,263 people aged between 18 and 95, and found that 1,379 of these proteins varied significantly with a subject’s age. Indeed, with information about levels of just 373 of these proteins, the researchers found they could predict a subject’s age “with great accuracy,” and an even smaller subset of just nine proteins could do a “passable” job.

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Proteins trapped in glass could yield new medicinal advances

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The protein, captured in an extremely thin piece of glass — around 50 nanometres in diameter, is sliced up, atom by atom, with the help of an electrical field. It is then analysed through Atom Probe Tomography, and the 3D structure is recreated on a computer. Credit: Small: Volume 15, Issue 24, Atom Probe Tomography for 3D Structural and Chemical Analysis of Individual Proteins Gustav Sundell, Mats Hulander, Astrid Pihl, Martin Andersson Copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Reproduced with permission.

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed a unique method for studying proteins which could open new doors for medicinal research. Through capturing proteins in a nano-capsule made of glass, the researchers have been able to create a unique model of proteins in natural environments. The results are published in the scientific journal, Small.

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New Peanut Created That Could Free Millions of People from Fear of Deadly Allergic Reaction

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Peanuts are the most common food allergy.

The nuts are one of the most common causes of food allergy, with a estimated quarter of a million people in Britain suffering from peanut allergy.  Contact with even a tiny amount of peanut can provoke a reaction.

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How Down Syndrome Protects Against Cancer

How Down Syndrome Protects Against Cancer

 Using customized stem cells, researchers showed that Down syndrome protects against cancer by preventing tumors from forming their own blood vessels. 

For decades scientists have known that people with Down syndrome, who have an extra copy of chromosome 21, get certain types of cancer at dramatically lower rates than normal. Now, partly by using stem cells derived from the skin of an individual with Down syndrome, researchers at Children’s Hospital Boston have pinpointed the gene that appears to underlie the cancer-protective effect.

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Hooked On Light – Could Reveal The Biochemistry Of Addiction

Hooked On Light - Could Reveal The Biochemistry Of Addiction

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A newly created set of light-sensitive proteins grants scientists unprecedented control over the brain’s biochemistry, potentially shedding light on addiction and other complex neural processes. To demonstrate the potential of this novel molecular toolbox, researchers from Stanford University engineered mice to carry light-sensitive proteins in the brain’s reward center, which responds to drugs of abuse. Using pulses of light delivered directly to the brain, researchers were able to induce a druglike state, ultimately conditioning the mice to behave like drug-addicted animals.

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Mini Submarines To Explore Human Body Nearing Reality

Mini Submarines To Explore Human Body Nearing Reality 

 

Ever since the 1966 Hollywood movie, doctors have imagined a real-life Fantastic Voyage  a medical vehicle shrunk small enough to “submarine” in and fix faulty cells in the body. Thanks to new research by Tel Aviv University scientists, that reality may be only three years away.

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New Laser Probe Developed For Space Program Could Spot Cataracts Earlier

New Laser Probe Developed For Space Program Could Spot Cataracts Earlier 

 A beam of light from a slit-lamp microscope focused on a cataract.

Cataracts are the single biggest cause of blindness and are responsible for almost half of all cases worldwide. A new laser probe, originally developed for the U.S. space program, has been shown to detect the condition earlier than is otherwise possible. Its developers say that the technique can tell that a cataract is forming even when an eye looks perfectly clear.

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A New Way To Detect Cancer Early

A New Way To Detect Cancer Early 

 

A prototype device employs the same magnetic phenomenon used to write data to computer hard drives.

A new system for detecting cancer proteins uses the same magnetic phenomenon that lets computer hard drives read and write data. The Stanford University researchers developing the system hope that it will detect cancer in its earlier stages, when it’s easier to treat. MagArray, a startup in Sunnyvale, CA, will commercialize the technology.

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Researchers Regrow Cells OF The Inner Retina

Researchers Regrow Cells OF The Inner Retina 

Cells in the retina of mice can be coaxed to create new neurons following an injury, according to new research from the University of Washington. This is the most definitive demonstration to date that such regeneration is possible, given the right cues, for a specific type of neuron in the inner retina of a mammal.

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Ten Minute Blood Test To Identify Cancer Proteins

Ten Minute Blood Test To Identify Cancer Proteins 

 A microfluidic chip identifies 35 proteins in a drop of blood within 10 minutes.

Measuring proteins in the blood can help doctors determine patients’ cancer risk and monitor the health of the elderly and people with chronic diseases. But current methods for testing these proteins are too expensive and require too much blood to be performed regularly. A microfluidic chip in clinical trials does on a single chip in 10 minutes what normally takes multiple technicians hours to do–and with just a single drop of blood. Researchers hope to make bedside diagnostics based on blood proteins a reality by bringing down the cost of such tests by at least an order of magnitude.

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