Predicted 3D structure for a segment of human genomic DNA.
Newly developed artificial intelligence (AI) programs accurately predicted the role of DNA’s regulatory elements and three-dimensional (3D) structure based solely on its raw sequence, according to two recent studies in Nature Genetics. These tools could eventually shed new light on how genetic mutations lead to disease and could lead to new understanding of how genetic sequence influences the spatial organization and function of chromosomal DNA in the nucleus, said study author Jian Zhou, Ph.D., Assistant Professor in the Lyda Hill Department of Bioinformatics at UTSW.
“Taken together, these two programs provide a more complete picture of how changes in DNA sequence, even in noncoding regions, can have dramatic effects on its spatial organization and function,” said Dr. Zhou, a member of the Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, a Lupe Murchison Foundation Scholar in Medical Research, and a Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) Scholar.
Only about 1% of human DNA encodes instructions for making proteins. Research in recent decades has shown that much of the remaining noncoding genetic material holds regulatory elements – such as promoters, enhancers, silencers, and insulators – that control how the coding DNA is expressed. How sequence controls the functions of most of these regulatory elements is not well understood, Dr. Zhou explained.Continue reading… “AI Tools Can Predict DNA Structure and Regulation”