Biochip innovation combines AI and nanoparticles to analyze tumors

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Electrical engineers, computer scientists and biomedical engineers at the University of California, Irvine have created a new lab-on-a-chip that can help study tumor heterogeneity to reduce resistance to cancer therapies.

In a paper published today in Advanced Biosystems, the researchers describe how they combined artificial intelligence, microfluidics and nanoparticle inkjet printing in a device that enables the examination and differentiation of cancers and healthy tissues at the single-cell level.

“Cancer cell and tumor heterogeneity can lead to increased therapeutic resistance and inconsistent outcomes for different patients,” said lead author Kushal Joshi, a former UCI graduate student in biomedical engineering. The team’s novel biochip addresses this problem by allowing precise characterization of a variety of cancer cells from a sample.

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Experimental cancer treatment destroys cancer cells without using any drugs

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One of the latest methods pioneered by scientists to treat cancer uses a Trojan horse sneak attack to prompt cancer cells to self-destruct – all without using any drugs.

Key to the technique is the use of a nanoparticle coated in a specific amino acid called L-phenylalanine, one of several such acids that cancer cells rely on to grow. L-phenylalanine isn’t made by the body, but absorbed from meat and dairy products.

In tests on mice, the nanoparticle – called Nano-pPAAM or Nanoscopic phenylalanine Porous Amino Acid Mimic – killed cancer cells specifically and effectively, posing as a friendly amino acid before causing the cells to destroy themselves.

The self-destruction mode is triggered as the nanoparticle puts production of certain chemicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) into overdrive. It’s enough to bring down the cancer cells while leaving neighbouring, healthy cells intact.

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Nanoparticle tech reduces celiac disease symptoms by 90%

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People with celiac disease have two options in life, neither of which is ideal.

Because their immune systems can’t tolerate gluten, they can choose to never eat the many delicious foods containing it. Boring.

Or they can devour all the cake, bread, and beer they want — but resign themselves to abdominal pain, diarrhea, and other nasty side effects when their immune systems trigger an inflammation response in their small intestines.

Needless to say, people tend to choose the former option — but a new technology could allow them to have their cake and feel good about the decision later, too.

Researchers from Northwestern University developed the tech, which they presented on Tuesday at the European Gastroenterology Week conference, and it works by hiding a bit of gluten in a biodegradable nanoparticle.

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Gelatin NanoParticles could Deliver Drugs to your Brain

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Stroke victims could have more time to seek treatment that could reduce harmful effects on the brain, thanks to tiny blobs of gelatin that could deliver the medication to the brain non-invasively.

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Nanosize batteries could revolutionize green energy

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The latest breakthrough in the search for lighter, more potent batteries is small battery made up of a billion nanopores, or microscopic holes capable of producing electric current.

Nanosize batteries that are 80,000 times thinner than a human hair could revolutionize green energy. They could advance the use of electric vehicles, now limited by short driving ranges, and of renewable energy, which needs storage for times when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine.

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Smartphones in the future could be printed on your clothes

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Graphene and carbon nanotubes can generate intense surface plasmons for use in nanoelectronics and cancer therapy.

Engineers at Monash University Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering (ECSE) have modeled the world’s first “spaser” (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) to be made completely out of carbon.

 

 

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Dental filling of the future kills bacteria and regenerates tooth

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The new filling contains calcium phosphate nanoparticles that rebuild tooth minerals.

Thanks to a new dental breakthrough, the dreaded trip to the dentist to replace a worn-out filling could soon be a thing of the past.  Scientists have used nanotechnology to create the first cavity-filling composite that kills harmful bacteria and regenerates tooth structure lost to decay.

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Nanoparticles in food, vitamins could harm human health

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An intestinal cell monolayer after exposure to nanoparticles, shown in green.

Billions of engineered nanoparticles in foods and pharmaceuticals are ingested by humans daily, and new Cornell research warns they may be more harmful to health than previously thought.

A research collaboration led by Michael Shuler, the Samuel B. Eckert Professor of Chemical Engineering and the James and Marsha McCormick Chair of Biomedical Engineering, studied how large doses of polystyrene nanoparticles — a common, FDA-approved material found in substances from food additives to vitamins — affected how well chickens absorbed iron, an essential nutrient, into their cells…

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Researchers develop paint-on solar cells

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Titanium dioxide nanoparticles coated with cadmium sulfide produced a yellow paste that, when painted onto a transparent conductive material, generates electricity.

The next coat of paint you put on the outside of your home could generate electricity from light — electricity that can be used to power the appliances and equipment on the inside.

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Nanotechnology Breakthrough Promises to Recover Usable Fingerprints From Old Evidence

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New nanotech method will allow better analysis of latent fingerprints.

Forensic investigators will be able to study old, dry fingerprints with a new fingerprint analysis method.  This new method could potentially unmask new evidence in cold cases.  The new method uses gold nanoparticles that are able to target amino acids on non-porous surfaces.  This will allow better analysis of latent fingerprints.

 

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BYU Chemists Turn Gold to Purple, on Purpose

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Chemists developed a method of artificial photosynthesis, and proved it by turning gold atoms into purple-colored nanoparticles.

Professor Richard Watt and his chemistry students suspected that a common protein could potentially react with sunlight and harvest its energy – similar to what chlorophyll does during photosynthesis.

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